Donald John Trump / dɒnəld d͡ʒɒn trʌmp / (born June 14, 1946 in Queens , New York City , New York ) is an American entrepreneur , entertainer . He is the owner of the Trump Organization conglomerate and led him from 1971 to 2017 as CEO . He made a billion dollar fortune in the real estate industry and made his name “Trump” a brand . Above all through his reality show The Apprentice (2004-2015) he became one of the most famous people in the United States.
Trump supported various political parties, but has been registered as a Republican (with a brief interruption) since 2009 . As their candidate , he won the presidential election on November 8, 2016 against Hillary Clinton and became the US President as military position and with the highest age when taking office .
His eclectic , changing political program contains elements of populism , protectionism and isolationism . With a simple language , provocative statements and radical proposals – such as immigration and Islam – Trump draws the media’s attention in a special way and becomes an information producer himself through the intensive use of Twitter .
Donald Trump is the fourth of five children of New York real estate entrepreneur Fred C. Trump (1905–1999) and Scottish fishing daughter Mary Anne MacLeod (1912–2000).  The parents of his father, born as Frederick Trump and Elisabeth Christ , articles of Kallstadt in the Pfalz (then part of the Kingdom of Bavaria ) immigrated. 
Trump’s uncle John G. Trump was an electrical engineer and a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from 1936 to 1973 . There he was with Robert Jemison Van de Graaff one of the pioneers in the generation of electrical voltages and their use in cancer therapy , whereby he emerged with pioneering approaches to reducing side effects. During World War II, he was instrumental in equipping the US Army with the latest radars. 
Like Donald Trump’s mother, nine uncles and aunts came from poor backgrounds from the Hebridean island of Lewis and Harris .  He was named Donald after one of these Scottish uncles. 
Donald Trump made several false statements about the origins of his ancestors: in his book The Art of the Deal (1987), he stated that his grandfather came from Karlstad in Sweden , thus carrying on a story of his father from the Second World War .  At least four times since taking office as president, Trump incorrectly claimed that his father was born in Germany.  Only glossy legends circulated about the origin of his mother until a Scottish journalist uncovered the facts after Trump polemicized against refugees in 2016. 
childhood and education
When Donald Trump was born in June 1946, the housing sector in which his father Fred worked as an entrepreneur was in a serious crisis. Although there was an immense demand for housing after the return of more than 6 million soldiers from the Second World War, but because of the great need for building materials, these were hardly available at affordable prices for inexpensive housing projects, which Fred Trump had specialized in during the war ,  After President Harry S. Truman used government funding from the Federal Housing Administration to boost housinghad significantly improved, Trump, who had previously benefited greatly from such support measures, started a major project with 1,344 rental apartments in Brooklyn in 1947 called Shore Haven , which was to be known by the local press as “Trump City”.  And in Queens, he built a far more modest and very thoughtful on thrift man, a prestigious residence with 23 rooms and nine bathrooms. There were also two Cadillacs with the number plates FT1 and FT2, for which he also hired a chauffeur . 
Donald Trump grew up conscious of being special and superior to others. His father encouraged him by saying that he was a “king” and that he had to become a “killer” in everything he did. Even in preschool age, Donald was notable for his aggressiveness towards other children. Like his siblings, he first attended the Kew Forest School in Queens. There were strict rules at school as well as at home, but Donald could not be tamed and therefore often had to be detained. He performed well in school sports , especially in ball sports . His favorite sport was baseball, whose “Mecca” was New York with its three top clubs in the mid-1950s. Because of his massive physical effort, he was feared by opponents. In order to escape the orderly, quiet life in Queens, he went on secret trips to Manhattan with a friend on Saturday , where, inspired by the musical Westside Story , which was a big hit on Broadway , they got jumping knives . One day in 1959, Fred Trump discovered his son’s knife collection and learned about the secret trips. He decided that a radical change was necessary and sent the son to the New York Military Academy in the small town, about 100 kilometers awayCornwall (New York) , a private boarding school with pre-military training. There was strict discipline there, and Donald Trump had to give up all luxury and had no privileges because of his origin. He arranged himself and found pleasure in getting awards for the cleanest room and shiny shoes. For the first time, he also developed an ambition for good academic performance. In baseball he became team captain, and so he probably made his first headline : Trump Wins Game for NYMA . In 1964 he left the academy with a high school diploma. 
Trump then studied economics , initially from 1964 to 1966 in New York at Fordham University and from 1966 at the Wharton School in Philadelphia , the renowned economics faculty of the University of Pennsylvania with a department for real estate management. Trump was academically, personally and politically unremarkable during his studies.  According to his biographers Kranish and Fisher, he spent almost as much time working with his father in New York as he did in classes at the Wharton School.  After graduating in 1968 with a bachelor’s degreeAfter being postponed four times as a student with certified fitness, he was not called up for military service for medical reasons and a possible deployment in the Vietnam War . There is no further information in the files; According to Trump’s own statements in 2016, it was heel spurs .
In 1977 Trump married Ivana Zelníčková Winklmayr , a model from Czechoslovakia . From this marriage the sons Donald Jr. , named Don (* 1977), and Eric (* 1984) and the daughter Ivanka (* 1981) emerged. 1990 Ivana filed for divorce because of “cruel and inhuman treatment” ( cruel and inhumane treatment a) what the media took an active part.  In an affidavit for divorce, Ivana Trump said she was raped by her husband in 1989.  In a television interview in 2018, she said she made up the allegations on the advice of her lawyers.  From 1993 to 1999 Trump was with the American actress Marla Maples married, with whom he daughter Tiffany (* 1993). In 2005 he married the Slovenian model Melania Knauss ; In 2006, their son Barron was born, the youngest presidential son since John F. Kennedy, Jr.
The sons Don and Eric have taken over the management of the family business The Trump Organization since their father took office as president . The daughter Ivanka, who was successful as a model and entrepreneur, is, like her husband Jared Kushner, one of the most important advisors to the president. Trump is a grandfather of nine . 
Trump’s older sister Maryanne Trump Barry (* 1937) was a judge at the Appeals Court of the 3rd Federal Court of Justice until February 2019 .  His older brother Fred jr. (1938-1981), called Freddy, worked for a few years in the father’s company, but did not show the ambition and the strict discipline that this required. He then started a career as a pilot, which he gave up after a while due to his substantial alcohol consumption, and died of heart failure at the age of 43 .
Entry into the real estate industry
Trump’s father Fred Trump had become a multimillionaire with the construction of residential houses in the New York boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens as well as in Norfolk (Virginia) .  Donald Trump worked alongside his studies in his father’s company, Trump Management , and was able to get on fully after graduating in 1968 thanks to the deferral from military service. Already in 1971, at the age of about 25, he took over the management of the company, while his 65-year-old father took over the position of a chairman . He was responsible for 14,000 rental apartments, many of which were rented to low-income earners. 
The milieu that Donald Trump now had to deal with when he had to collect any outstanding rents was strange and uncomfortable. He himself lived in luxurious and orderly conditions in Queens, and at Wharton School he had been among aspiring business people, many of whom came from much richer families than himself. His goal was to gain a foothold in Manhattan and took off in 1971 he rented an apartment on the Upper East Side . For the first time, however, he became known to a broader public, not because of his entrepreneurial success, but as a defendant in a racial discrimination trial . On October 16, 1973, his name appeared on the front pages of the New York Times and other newspapers where his company was locatedTrump management has been accused of systematically discriminating against black prospective tenants . 
Extensive racial segregation in the occupancy of apartment building complexes had been common and non-punishable until 1968, and the Federal Housing Administration , which administered state subsidies for housing, from which Fred Trump had benefited greatly, had even had mixed (“inharmonious”) Allocations discouraged. But 1968 was the Fair Housing Actcame into force, which prohibited such discrimination nationwide. In New York, test subjects with black and white skin tones began to apply for the same apartments, and Trump’s company encountered a particularly high level of inconsistencies, including statements by employees that they had strict instructions to reject black prospects or to to restrict residential complexes intended for them. 
Given the charges against both of them personally, Trump and his father went to a law firm where they were advised to seek a settlement that would keep them unpunished. But that was out of the question for Donald Trump. He turned to the renowned lawyer Roy Cohn , from whom he had noticed an open letter in the New York Times to Spiro Agnew , the US Vice President who had just resigned because of the allegation of tax evasion . In it, Cohn accused Agnew of lack of courage and spoke passionately for defending himself in cases such as he himself had successfully done several times. Cohn, the right-hand man in the McCarthy eraJoseph McCarthys, who had achieved dubious fame but was now one of the most influential people in New York, agreed to champion Trump’s case. The process dragged on for two years and then ended in 1975 with a settlement, which involved the obligation to make a statement at the local press at its own expense that members of all races were welcome to rent Trump apartments. This was generally seen as a minority victory.
At that time, the city of New York was in a serious crisis. The funding of housing projects, which had previously been the Trumps’ core business, had to be stopped in 1975 due to lack of funds. But Donald Trump saw the crisis as an opportunity for his own plans in Manhattan. As part of the bankruptcy of the bankrupt railway company Penn Centrallarge areas as well as four once renowned hotels in Manhattan were for sale. There was no prospect for one of these hotels, the run-down 62-story Commodore (now Grand Hyatt New York). As a newcomer to this industry with no capital and no contacts, Trump initially had poor prospects, and his father was very skeptical but still supported him. A very helpful employee who provided him with the necessary contacts, he found Louise Sunshine, previously the fundraising for Hugh Carey , the governor of the State of New York had operated, and Fred Trump had gained as one of the largest donors. The Hyatt hotel chainwas interested in the project as a possible operator of the hotel after restoration and modernization because she did not yet have a hotel in New York. Trump claimed to Penn Central that he already had an agreement with Hyatt, although it hadn’t. The company then granted him a right of first refusal if he paid $ 250,000 in advance. Trump didn’t have that money; already the fee for the architect Der Scutthis father had to pay. Nevertheless, Trump claimed to the city, which he needed approval for the project, that he already had a contract with Penn Central, and was granted approval on that basis, although there were now better offers from other applicants. With a personal guarantee from his father for the necessary loans, he finally managed to acquire the building with Hyatt as a 50:50 partner and to complete it in 1980 as a modern first-class hotel. In addition, Abraham D. Beame, the outgoing Mayor of New York and a long-time friend of Fred Trump, for granting Donald Trump a tax exemption on the last day of his term in 1977 – the first such exemption for a private project in New York’s history – which caused him to continue until 2017 should save an estimated $ 400 million. 
Also in 1977 Trump married his first wife Ivana (see family ). This happened at the Marble Collegiate Church in Manhattan, which his parents had visited occasionally. Pastor Norman Vincent Peale , who performed the wedding, was a well-known representative of positive thinking . Trump later described him as his only important advisor alongside his father. He soon took on his wife as company vice president and she was responsible for the interior design of the Grand Hyatt, the Trump Tower and other buildings, although she had no experience in this area.
For the next project, the representative Trump Tower, Trump acquired an old department store on Fifth Avenue to use the property. By having the sculptures on the Art Deco facade destroyed, although he had promised the Metropolitan Museum to make the sculptures available to him for a tax-deductible donation receipt, he again received criticism in the press. For the very complex demolition of the building due to the construction situation, he deployed numerous illegal Polish immigrants who had to work under very bad conditions and for low wages. To speed up the construction of the new building, Trump relied – like many of his competitors at the time – on companies andUnions controlled by the mafia and with which his lawyer Cohn had good relationships. So the work on the Trump Tower remained unaffected by a wave of strikes in 1982. When the building was ready for occupancy in 1983, the costs had already been paid for by selling the 266 apartments. Buyers included celebrities like Steven Spielberg and Michael Jackson . The stores in the five- story atrium were let for up to $ 1 million a year. Trump set up his office on the 26th floor, and the top three floors were converted into an extremely luxurious penthouse with 53 rooms for the family of five. 
This building, bearing his name, made Trump famous beyond the borders of New York. This also increased his creditworthiness, and in 1985 he was able to acquire the Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida as a further residence . He appeared on the front page of the men’s magazine GQ , and its owner Si Newhouse suggested that he publish a book with Trump as the alleged author in his publishing house Random House . The art of the deal , written by a ghostwriter , became a bestseller in 1987 . 
People from his environment at the time describe that Trump’s behavior has changed in these years. In the past, his employees had always had access to him, but now he kept his distance and surrounded himself with people who applauded him and expressed no concerns. This included three bodyguards. He also developed a tendency to outburst of anger.
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