Cricket (Engl. [ ˈKɹɪkɪt ]; officially cricket in Germany ,   in the beginning also “Thorball”) is a ball game with two teams . It is all about the duel between the thrower ( bowler ) and the batsman ( batsman ) . The bowler tries to move the batsman in an error so that it is eliminated, the batsman for his part tried the ball to chip away at points ( runs ) to achieve. The bowler is assisted by the other outfield players who have theTry to bring the ball back as soon as possible.
The sport is primarily practiced as a summer sport in the countries of the Commonwealth and is also a national sport in some countries.
An early form of cricket, played by shepherds and farmers, can be traced back to the 13th century. There is written evidence of a game called creag in Kent in 1300 that was played by Prince Edward .
In 1598, a court case reported a sport called Kreckett that was practiced at a school in Guildford . This is also the first valid proof of the word cricket in the English language , according to the Oxford English Dictionary .
During the 17th century, Creckett became increasingly popular, especially in the south east of England. Towards the end of this century, it became an organized sport (which probably also spawned the first professionals in the field), since it was proven that a great cricket match with 11 players per team was held in Sussex in 1697 .
Organization and development of cricket editing
In the 18th century, essential components of the game were developed further and cricket became the national sport in England. Noble and rich merchants started to set up their own teams (select XIs) . Venues in London were already provided on the Artillery Ground in Finsbury in 1707 , until the legendary Lord’s Cricket Ground was finally opened in 1787 . The Marylebone Cricket Club , founded in the same year , quickly became the first address in this sport and is still the guardian of the Laws of Cricket (cricket rules).
In the 19th century, the forearm throw used until then was replaced first by the round throw (a throw at the pelvis) and finally in 1864 by the upper arm throw , which is still a typical distinguishing feature of cricket today. In 1877, the first test cricket match was held at the Melbourne Cricket Ground between Australia and England. Since then, cricket has been operated professionally in league operations at the national level.
Cricket, like Croquet and Pelota , was also a sport at the Paris Olympics in 1900 . The duration of the Olympic cricket game was only two days, the winner was Great Britain, which can still bear this title.
Development to worldwide sports edit
At the end of the 19th century, the sport was held internationally in England, Australia and South Africa, but with the independence of the British colonies it also became relevant in the Caribbean and South Asia. At the end of the 1970s, sport was modernized and cricket was further established in the media and commercially. Until then, games generally lasted several days, shorter forms were established with one-day games and at the beginning of the 2000s with Twenty20 games. Since their introduction, there have been world championships ( Cricket World Cup , ICC T20 World Cup ) in these two forms , which are in addition to traditional tours between teams as the core of today’s international game.
General gameplay edit
There are eleven players from the field team and two players from the batting team on the oval field. In the middle of the playing field there is a strip ( pitch ) of approx. 20 m long and 3 m wide, on the narrow ends of which there is a wooden structure, the so-called wicket. The goal of the field team is to use their bowler to destroy the opponent’s wicket with the ball. To prevent this, a batsman from the batting team stands in front of each of the wickets and repels the ball with a bat. The bowler starts from the opposite end of the pitch and throws ( bowls) the ball in a given throwing technique towards the Batsman. If he misses the ball and the ball destroys the wicket, the batsman is eliminated, just as if he hits the ball and it is then caught directly from the air by a member of the field team. In this case, a new batsman of the batting team comes onto the field and takes his place. If the batsman manages to strike, he runs to the other side of the pitch and swaps places with his partner. For every successful change of sides, the batting side receives one point ( run ). If the batsman manages to roll the ball over the field boundary, there are 4 runs. If he even manages to get the ball off the field without first touching the ground, there are 6 runs.
A game is divided into two or four game sections ( innings ), in which each team is either an innings batting or field team. The innings are again in subsections ( Over) divided by six regular throws of the bowler, in which the bowler always starts and bowls from one end of the pitch. When all balls of the overs have been thrown, another bowler follows from the other side of the pitch and does his over from there. The innings ends when ten players have dropped out of the batting team or when a predetermined number of over has been completed. The two teams then swap their tasks and complete their innings as a field or field team. After all innings have been completed, the team with the most runs wins.
→ Main article : Laws of Cricket
The Marylebone Cricket Club (MCC) is recognized as the supreme authority of the cricket rules in London, although international cricket is conducted under the leadership of the International Cricket Council (ICC). The MCC publishes the Laws of Cricket , which determine the course of the game in 42 rules.
Players and Official Editing
A cricket team consists of eleven players. The use of substitutes and runners for injured players is also possible to a very limited extent, but there are no tactical substitutions. In the course of a cricket game, the players assume different roles depending on the game situation.
Each player in a batting team must appear as a batsman once and score runs for his team.
When the other team is on the line, the bowlers try to knock out the opposing batsmen. Bowlers are usually specialized and very good bowlers will be forgiven if they do not do very well as a batsman.
The wicket keeper stands behind the batsman, the striker , who is at the stroke and tries to catch the balls “thrown” by the bowler. Wicket keepers are usually highly specialized and each team has only one wicket keeper . He is also the only field player on the field who wears gloves.
The players of the field team, who have no special task, try as a fielder to get the ball struck by the batsman back into the center of the field as quickly as possible or even catch it.
There are two rules for cricket, but more referees for important games, called ” umpires “. It is considered unsportsmanlike to criticize an arbitrator’s decision or to start discussions with him.
The two scorers enter the runs achieved and other game data in the official game report (“scorecard”).
→ Main article : cricket field
Cricket is played on a large oval space, the outer boundary (boundary) is, for example, labeled by a rope. In the middle of the field there is a specially prepared, 20.12 meter (22 yards) long and 3.05 meter (10 feet) wide strip – the so-called pitch . At the two ends of this pitch , three stumps are set up, on each of which there are two smaller transverse bars (bails) . These two arrangements of bars are called wickets .
→ Main article : cricket ball
The cricket ball is traditionally dark red and has a cork core that is tightly wrapped with string. The cover consists of four pieces of leather, which are connected by a slightly raised seam. The ball weighs 155.9–163 g (5 1/2–5 3/4 ounces) and has a circumference of 22.4–22.9 cm (8 13/16–9 inches; Ø≈7.2 cm) , The balls in the youth and women’s area are somewhat lighter and smaller.
Throwing technique edit
The sequence of movements when bowling
The bowler’s throwing technique is largely prescribed by the rules. The limb must not be stretched as soon as it reaches the height of the shoulder, which in practice almost always means that the arm is and remains fully stretched at this moment. Otherwise the throw will be void, see No Ball . This technique is called bowling , so in cricket the terms throwing and bowling are strictly differentiated.
Another peculiarity is the fact that the ball is bowled so that it hits the ground in front of the striker. The rules do not prescribe this, but they prohibit the ball from reaching the Batsman volley above the waist. For volley , the term full toss is used in cricket . Although the ball loses a lot of speed when it comes up, it is difficult for the Batsman to hit the ball. Basically there are two techniques according to which bowler bowling is differentiated:
In spin bowling , the ball is rotated and changes its trajectory after hitting the ground.
In fast bowling , the ball is given a high speed to cause problems for the batsman. Highly specialized fast bowlers can accelerate the ball to over 160 km / h.
The striker has two goals. First, he defends his wicket, i.e. that is, it prevents it from being hit by the bowed ball. Secondly, whenever possible, he will try to knock the ball away so that he has enough time to run over to the other wicket. His partner, the non-striker, who stands at the other end of the pitch next to the wicket there, so that the bowler of the field team has space to bow, must then also run to the opposite end of the pitch. The batsmen are free to decide whether to start or not.
If one of the batsmen does not get past the stroke line (popping crease) at the end of his pitch before the field team has thrown the ball onto the corresponding wicket and thereby destroyed it – d. that is, at least one of the small, transverse bars (bails) has fallen off – this batsman is eliminated (see 1. with the batsman’s elimination below). If the batsmen succeed in this change of sides, this is called single and counts one point (run), If there is enough time, the batsmen can run back and forth as often as they like and get a corresponding score. In practice, this change of location rarely happens more than three times. If the striker hits the ball high over the field boundary, there are six runs. The referee then stretches both arms up. If the ball touches the ground beforehand, there are only four runs. In this case, the referee waves from side to side with one arm.
Eliminating the batsman (wickets) Edit
→ main products : Dismissal (Cricket)
The goal of the field team is to throw the opposing bats out of the game as quickly as possible. Each batsman plays until he is eliminated and is then replaced by the next batsman who has not had his turn in this innings . As soon as ten of the eleven batsmen have been eliminated (everyone speaks of all out), this innings is complete. The field right changes or the game is over.
The departure of a Batsman is also called wicket , regardless of whether the actual wicket was involved or not. Such a wicket can be done in a total of ten different ways. The most important are:
If the field team hits the wicket with the ball while one of the batsmen is still between the wickets (actually between the lines of the stroke) (run out) .
When the bowler hits the wicket with his ball past the striker and at least one bail falls (bowled) .
When the striker hits the ball and a member of the field team catches the ball before the ball hits the ground for the first time ( caught ). If the wicket keeper catches the ball, one speaks of caught behind , if the bowler himself catches the ball of caught and bowled .
If the striker misses the ball but is stopped by his body, but the referee believes that the ball would have hit the wicket, the ball can be kicked off the wicket. Excretions of this type are called Leg before Wicket or LBW for short and are often very controversial.
If the striker steps in front of his striking line and the ball gets through to the wicket keeper behind him, who then alone destroys the striker’s wicket with the ball before he gets behind his line and without the striker getting a point (Run ) has striven for. This is called stumped .
If the bowler succeeds in a wicket in three successive throws, one speaks of a hat trick .
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