Basketball

Basketball is a mostly in the hall operated ball sport , in which two teams try to throw the ball in the opposing basket . The baskets are 3.05 meters high on the two narrow sides of the pitch. A team usually consists of five field players (although there are other variations such as the increasingly popular 3-3 variant) and up to seven substitute players who can change as often as they like. Each hit in the basket from the game counts two or three points depending on the distance. A hit free throw counts one point. It wins the team with the higher score.

Basketball was first invented for YMCA students in 1891 by Canadian physician and educator James Naismith as indoor sports , and quickly spread worldwide through the YMCA. Since 1936 the sport for men, since 1976 also for women olympisch . Today, basketball is global, especially in the United States , China , the Philippines , Lithuania and southern Europe and is also in some other countries such as Canada , Australiaand large parts of Latin America and Central and Eastern Europe. By far the most popular and professional league in the world is the North American NBA . Every four years, a basketball World Cup hosted by the FIBA World Basketball Federation takes place in a different country .

According to FIBA, around 450 million people worldwide play basketball. [1] The most successful athletes are among the most highly paid professional athletes.

In the following years, first played with panel balls that resembled today’s volleyball. Since at that time the rule was that an out-of-the-field ball came into the possession of the team that reached it first, the players often jumped into the ranks regardless of the spectators. So that the ball could not get out of the way, they started to fence the basketball court with a cage made of chicken wire. These “basketball cages” gave the sport its nickname ” cage game ” ( English for cage play). Barney Sedran, a player in the New York Whirlwinds described how uncomfortable playing in the cages was: “Most of us had constant cuts and the court was covered in blood.” [4]

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At the beginning of the 20th century, the first famous teams were formed and later inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame . The Buffalo Germans were among the strongest teams at the YMCA. In 1904, the Germans demonstrated basketball in Exhibition Games at the III. Olympic Games in St. Louis . It is doubtful that basketball was even an official Olympic competition, after all, did not occur at the running of several months of the Olympic Games on the sidelines of the World Fair, no national teams, this should happen only in 1936 in Berlin. In addition to the Germans, the original Celtics were from the second decade of the 20th centuryone of the most influential teams. In the 1920s, the Celtics were supplemented by other teams such as the New York Renaissance or the Cleveland Rosenblums . In 1925, the American Basketball League (ABL) was founded, which changed the basketball game in some areas. The chicken or metal wire was abolished and replaced by ropes. Furthermore backboard was (Engl. Back-board ) officially introduced behind the baskets.

At the beginning of the 20th century, basketball was introduced in different countries of the world. As early as 1893, the first game took place in Paris on French soil. In 1902, for the first time, the rules written by James Naismith were translated into German. Four years later, basketball was introduced in Italy. In 1913, the ball sport in Puerto Rico was warmly received and celebrated. In the following years basketball was presented in many other countries (including in 1916 in Bulgaria and 1917 in Albania and Greece ).

In 1923, the first national championship of the men took place in the Soviet Union. By the late 1920s, basketball was enjoying increasing popularity. In 1930, the first continental championship of the men in South America took place from 6 to 14 December, in which Uruguay prevailed against Argentina . The first step towards international acceptance of this sport came in 1930, when the International Olympic Committee (IOC) started basketball as an Olympic sport. In 1932, eight national associations founded the World Basketball Federation FIBB in Geneva , and from 1935-1986 Fédération Internationale de Basketball Amateur [FIBA] (see Associations and leagues). The World Basketball Federation controls the international championships and the Olympic tournament and sets the international rules. In 1958, the FIBA ​​introduced the European Cup of Champions (men) and in 1959 the national champion (women).

From 1932 basketball also arrived in Germany, first by Hugo Murero at the military training Wünsdorf, then in Breslau and Gera and from 1933 in Bad Kreuznach by Hermann Niebuhr . He had met as a teacher at the German School in Istanbul basketball. [11] He founded in 1935 the first basketball division at “Vfl 1848 Bad Kreuznach”, Also in 1935, a German university selection participated in the basketball tournament of the Academic World Games in Budapest. In 1936, Germany took part only at the last minute in the first Olympic basketball tournament in Berlin; all three games were lost. In 1939, the first German men’s championship took place in Hamburg. The title won the Air Force Sports Association (LSV) Spandau. Germany played from 1936 to 1942 19 international matches, 4 matches were won.

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Basketball was under the jurisdiction of the Fachamt 4 Handball / Basketball of the German Reich, later National Socialist Reich Association for Physical Education. After the end of the Second World War, the first basketball games were held in autumn 1945. After two predecessor organizations, the ” Deutscher Basketball Bund ” (DBB) was founded on October 1, 1949 in Düsseldorf as an independent organization in the Federal Republic. Since then, this national association has been responsible for hosting the German Basketball Championship. In the GDR first was the section Basketball, from 1958 the German Basketball Association. In 1953 both associations sent an all-German team to the men’s European Championship in Moscow. With the founding of the Basketball Bundesliga(short BBL) in 1966 was first introduced a professional basketball league in Germany. Germany won in 1993 with 71:70 in Munich against Russia the European Championship.

Basketball was in 1936 at the 1936 Olympic Games in Berlin officially played. The game was split into two halves of 20 minutes each and practiced on tennis courts of the Reichssportfeld . In the final, the American national team was able to prevail against Canada with 19: 8. In 1950, the first official ” Men’s Basketball World Cup ” took place in Buenos Aires , Argentina . The Argentine basketball team was able to prevail in the final against the United States.

Three years later, the first official ” Women’s Basketball World Cup ” took place in Santiago de Chile . Here, the team from the US was able to hold its own against the hosts. Since 1976 (Montreal) also the basketball women play for Olympic medals.

Basketball is today one of the most popular sports in the world and has many regions in the world, including European countries such. B. Spain , the Baltic States, the countries of the former Yugoslavia , Greece , the Turkey and Israel , but also in some South American countries (eg, Mexico , Brazil , Venezuela , Puerto Rico and Argentina ) and some countries in Southeast Asia (particularly China , the Philippines and Taiwan ) as well as in Australiaand New Zealand a high priority. At the Men’s Basketball World Cup 2006 in Japan, the Spanish basketball team won against the team from Greece 70:47. At the previous World Basketball Championships, countries such as Serbia and Croatia , Yugoslavia, and women and men, Russia and the Soviet Union were very successful. In 2010 and 2014 , the US national team became world champion, 2019 for the second time Spain.

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The ball has been developed and improved over the last hundred years. The first two years of basketball were played with panel balls . These panel balls were comparable to current volleyballs. Since 1894 to the 1940s, laced basketballs were used in competitions and games. This already showed the “typical” form of the lines of basketball.

The present basketball is made of synthetic material or leather and nylon threads.

In competitions for men, the official ball has a circumference of 749 to 780 millimeters (size 7) and a weight of 567 to 650 grams.

In the German women’s basketball leagues is played since the 2004/05 season with a ball that has a circumference of 724-737 millimeters (size 6) and weighs 510-567 grams.

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clothing
In the first half of the 20th century, players wore wool and cloth trousers. In addition, the wearing of knee, elbow and shin guards was mandatory during the game. This was mainly due to the hard style and the poor condition of the arenas. In the 1960s, the clothing of players has changed significantly. The jerseys became more comfortable and free, and the pants were replaced by comfortable short shorts.

The basketball shoes have changed since then. At first, the players wore impractical leather shoes. In the 1980s, the first stars were contracted by sporting goods manufacturers such as Nike , Adidas , Puma or Converse .

also read :- Baseball :- the American sports

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