Apple : The only iOS software developer

by sumitkumar

Apple Inc. [ ˈæpəlˌɪŋk ] is an American hardware and software developer and technology company headquartered in Cupertino , California , which develops and sells computers , smartphones and consumer electronics as well as operating systems and application software . It also operates internet sales portals for music, films and software.

Apple was founded in 1976 by Steve Wozniak , Steve Jobs and Ron Wayne as a garage company and was one of the first manufacturers of personal computers . The company made a significant contribution to their development into a mass product. With the introduction of the graphical user interface and the mouse in the 1980s, Apple played a pioneering role with the Lisa and Macintosh computers . With the appearance of the iPod (2001), the iPhone (2007) and the iPad(2010) Apple gradually expanded its business to other product areas. It laid the basis for the boom in the smartphone and tablet computer market that continues today . In recent years, the iPhone, with a share of sales of more than 50% of the group’s total sales, has become Apple’s most important product. [3]

The iTunes Store for music and film downloads , opened in 2003, became the first commercially successful download portal and played a key role in shaping this market. [4] Today, the iTunes Store and opened in 2008, are App Store two of the largest distribution channels for digital goods .

The company Apple was on 1 April 1976 by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne with a starting capital of 1,300 US dollars founded. [5] [6] The business shares between Jobs, Wozniak and Wayne were 45%: 45%: 10% divided according to the key. All three knew each other from the Homebrew Computer Club , a club of enthusiasts and hackers , [7] from which many computer pioneers and entrepreneurs emerged. This club is referred to as the “melting pot for an entire industry” in terms of personal computers . [8] In the trio Wozniak was the creative hobbyist, one – as the journalistSteven Levy writes – brilliant computer hacker, [7] who lacked a feeling for business; Steve Jobs was the visionary who drove the idea of ​​starting the company and Ron Wayne was the one who could bring the two together and mediate between them so that they could agree on a common concept. Wayne took care of the legal formalities of the company foundation and also drew the first logo of the new company, which Isaac Newton showed sitting under an apple tree with a single apple hanging on it. Co-founder Wayne left Apple eleven days later due to concerns about the payment practices of Byte Shop , which was the new company’s first customer. [9]He sold his shares in the company for a total of $ 2,300. [10]

The concept and designs for the Apple I , the world’s first personal computer , [7] [11] [12] were developed under the leadership of Wozniak shortly before the company was founded in Los Altos in Silicon Valley . His PC provided the basis for the idea for founding the company and was also the first product from Apple. [12] The then assembled with the help of Steve Jobs modules of the system have been in July 1976 by the computer chain byte Shop under the slogan Byte into an Applesold for a retail price of $ 666.66 in small quantities of approximately 200 copies. The successor, the Apple II released in 1977 , was the last industrially manufactured PC that – like the Apple I – was designed entirely by a single person, Steve Wozniak. [7] [11] [12] The development and marketing of this computer required further investments beyond the sales of the Apple I. In 1977 these necessitated the conversion of Apple into a corporation, with the first major investment being made by Mike Markkula . With his $ 250,000 contribution, he now held 26 percent of the company’s shares. [13]The command line-oriented Apple II, which was introduced to the public in June 1977 , quickly became a bestseller and is considered one of the most successful personal computers of its time.

Inspired by the great success of the Apple II, the company began working on a new, forward-looking project in autumn 1979. Under the code name “Macintosh”, the development of an intuitive computer for broad sections of the population was envisaged. Responsible Jef Raskin urged in particular to the inclusion of a short time before by Xerox introduced the graphical user interface (English, graphical user interface ). This already had the basic concept of today’s GUIs with windows, clickable icons and menu navigation for operation via computer mouse and mouse pointer, the so-called WIMP paradigm, This was intended to replace the command line-oriented user interface that previously existed in computers and required special knowledge. Raskin then prompted Steve Jobs to visit the Xerox PARC research center (Palo Alto Research Center) in November 1979 in order to get an idea of ​​himself. Jobs was impressed with the Xerox Alto GUI and, a few weeks later, sent more Apple developers to review the technology. In return, Xerox was given the opportunity to purchase 100,000 shares worth $ 1 million prior to Apple’s IPO. [14] [15] [16]

Just like the Xerox Star with its GUI, launched in 1981, Apple was not a commercial success two years later with the $ 10,000 Apple Lisa , although Apple’s GUI already had some improvements such as overlapping windows, dropout menus , drag and drop and the trash had been added. It was only in 1984 that the Macintosh , which was much cheaper and sold in large quantities , succeeded in establishing the graphical user interface on the emerging mass PC market. [15] [17]

1985-1996: Sculley era
Apple had already been looking for a company boss in the fall of 1982 because Mike Markkula wanted to resign. In the spring of 1983, John Sculley was chosen , who had previously been responsible for two successful PepsiCo advertising campaigns and was considered a marketing genius. Sculley and Jobs were initially enthusiastic about each other: Jobs said in May 1984 that Sculley’s start at Apple was one of the best days of his career. Sculley then explained that Apple had “only one leader – Steve and me.” [18]A short time later, however, there were increasingly frequent conflicts between the two, which resulted in a coup attempt by Jobs in May 1985. After this failed, Jobs was relieved of his duties as head of the Macintosh department [19] and left Apple in September 1985 to found the computer manufacturer NeXT .

After the initial euphoria subsided, the Macintosh sold slowly because the hardware was underperforming. This changed from around 1986 with the introduction of new models such as the Macintosh Plus . The Macintosh product line was widely used in the desktop publishing market, which arose as a result of the Macintosh’s WYSIWYG capabilities and thanks to software from various third-party providers such as PageMaker and QuarkXPress .

Newton MessagePad , 1993
In 1987, a group led by Steve Sakoman started working on wireless networks and handwriting recognition. The project, codenamed “Newton”, was supported by Sculley, who coined the term Personal Digital Assistant , and presented it at the Consumer Electronics Show in spring 1992 . However, the project was delayed several times. When the first device, the Newton MessagePad , finally appeared in late summer 1993, handwriting recognition was immature and led to ridicule and even parody in the television series The Simpsons . [20] [21]

Since the Macintosh operating system was significantly ahead of the competition in the 1980s, the devices achieved profit margins of over 50% at the time. With the release of Microsoft Windows 3.0 in May 1990, however, Apple came under pressure and in October 1990 introduced the Macintosh LC and the Macintosh Classic, two significantly cheaper Macintosh models. This temporarily led to higher market shares, but at the same time Apple’s profits fell significantly. [22] Meanwhile, the cost of various research projects rose significantly – the Newton project alone generated development costs of $ 100 million. [23] – In 1993, Apple posted a quarterly loss for the first time in several years. In June 1993, Sculley finally had to vacate the position as CEO and was replaced by Michael Spindler .

Under Spindler, Apple began licensing its own Mac OS operating system to other hardware manufacturers in 1994 in order to compete more closely with Microsoft. Initially, only smaller companies such as Power Computing joined the licensing program , and it was only in 1996 that Motorola , a larger manufacturer, joined. [24] The hoped for market share gains did not materialize, [25] instead the competing operating system Microsoft Windows had largely prevailed. Apple was only more important in the areas of education, web and desktop publishing . [26]

During Spindler’s tenure, the successful switch from Motorola’s 68k to PowerPC processors occurred , but also a number of technical problems and management errors, which led to his replacement by Gil Amelio in early 1996 and a write -down of $ 740 million. [27] Apple at that time was nearing insolvency or a takeover by Oracle , Sun , IBM and Hewlett-Packard .

An urgent problem was that Apple’s operating system was considered outdated and essential skills such as preemptive multitasking or protected working memory were missing, so that problems in a single program could crash the entire operating system. After own projects such as Taligent or Copland failed, Apple was forced to look outside the company for a new operating system. Apple therefore negotiated the purchase of Be Incorporated in order to use its BeOS operating system. The takeover failed in November 1996 due to the excessive demands of the Be bossJean-Louis Gassée . [30] Instead, Apple took over in December 1996, surprising the company NeXT of Apple founder Steve Jobs for about 400 million US dollars. [31]

With the acquisition of NeXT, a new corporate culture entered Apple . In the summer of 1997 Gil Amelio was released [32] and the board of directors was almost completely replaced. A new CEO was initially not appointed. [33] [34] Steve Jobs, who previously held a purely informal advisory role, became a member of the board, but did not want to take on a leadership position at Apple. [35] While the company was looking for a successor for Amelio, he was initially interim CEO [36] and finally took over the position two and a half years later. [37] Numerous other key positions in the company were also filled with NeXT employees. [38]

Jobs ended licensing the operating system to other manufacturers, [25] canceled many ongoing research and development projects and discontinued several product lines, including the Newton , [39] and many Macintosh models. The new strategy envisaged only four products: for home users, these were the iBook for mobile and the iMac for stationary use; the more powerful PowerBook and Power Mac models are aimed at professional users .

Another important element of the company rescue was an agreement with the arch rival Microsoft, which was presented at the Macworld Expo in August 1997 . [40] In this case, Microsoft invested 150 million dollars in non-voting Apple stock. [41] Both companies agreed to cross-license their patents and to work closely together on Java development. Apple also made Internet Explorer the new standard web browser for the Macintosh operating system, and Microsoft committed five years to the same number of new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintoshpublish like for Windows. A missing Microsoft Office on the Macintosh was considered a major threat to Apple at the time. [42]

Mac OS 8 appeared in the summer of 1997 . While part of the company continued to develop the classic Mac operating system, another group worked on its successor, Mac OS X , which combined elements of NeXT’s NeXTStep operating system (such as the Mach kernel) with elements of classic Mac OS (such as the Finder ). Mac OS X also had two programming interfaces (APIs): the NeXTStep-derived Cocoa API and the Carbon API available from Mac OS 8 , which should make it easier for developers of software for Mac OS 8 and 9 to later port to Mac OS X. The graphical user interface “ Aqua“, Which combined elements from NeXTStep (such as the Dock ) and the classic Mac OS (e.g. upper menu bar). Mac OS X was released in beta in 2000, from 2001 it was preinstalled on new Macs alongside Mac OS 9 and from 2002 it was Apple’s only standard operating system.

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